27 Apr

Improving employment opportunities for ethnic minorities in Wales

Non-white groups in Wales have persistently higher unemployment rates than the White Welsh group, in a context where unemployment in Wales is relatively high compared to other parts of the UK. Why is this the case? What changes could bring about a more level playing field in the labour market?

These were some of the questions debated in a series of roundtables organised by Egino, working with the People & Work Unit, and supported by the Joseph Rowntree Foundation, to discuss the JRF Viewpoint Breaking the links between poverty and ethnicity in Wales.

Higher risk groups

Some groups are at particular risk, e.g. Bangladeshi men are over 7 times more likely to be in low-paid jobs than otherwise comparable White men.

Being female is a major risk factor: In Wales, more than 50% of women from ethnic minorities are projected to remain unemployed up to 2020.

Christine O’Byrne, Policy and Research Lead at Chwarae Teg, the Welsh charity which promotes women’s progress in the workplace, stressed that gender is central to tackling poverty: “Women are more likely to be in poverty than men and we know that women face multiple disadvantage, so as a woman you would be disadvantaged in the economy, and as a woman from an ethnic minority group you’d be even more so. A lot of work needs to be done.”

She identified public procurement as a tool for influencing employers and their recruitment practices: “There’s a lot of discrimination that goes on in recruitment and much more positive action could be taken that will help women in general and particularly women from minority ethnic groups to do well in the workplace.”

Low-paid sectors

Dr Rachel Bowen, Policy Manager for the Federation of Small Businesses, drew attention to the tendency for certain ethnic groups to cluster in traditional, often low-paid sectors and occupations. This explains some differences in earnings as well as income for people starting their own businesses: “We need to be sure that people are choosing to start businesses that best suit their skills, their ambitions, rather than going into something that seems appropriate to their particular ethnic background or their gender. We know that, from the research people tend to concentrate in occupations that are traditional to their particular background. We need to challenge that so that everybody can achieve their true potential.”

Practical proposals

Practical solutions were the main focus of discussion throughout the roundtable series. Ideas flowed – ideas like:

  • Working with major employers to open up opportunities, as the Ethnic Youth Support Team is doing in Swansea.
  • Ring-fencing opportunities in publicly funded contracts so that people with the skills can get a better look-in locally.
  • Supporting small businesses willing to offer work placements.
  • Persuading City Regions to incorporate good practice at an early stage of development.

Ali Abdi, Community Partnerships manager for Grangetown Community Gateway, was particularly keen on proposals for working directly with individuals to overcome barriers and to address inequalities in recruitment: “… looking at name-blind and address-blind applications to make employment processes more equal … putting pressure on big employers to have more positive recruitment processes, so they address their BME issues and can have a more diverse workforce.”

Over-arching issues

Big, over-arching issues also generated debate including, of course, racism and discrimination, which continue to be negative factors; there was also concern that racism has become islamophobia.

There was wide agreement that legislation and strategies are not making a sufficient discernible difference. Do policies just need more “teeth”? Or is the answer a Welsh Government action plan to tackle employment barriers?

Action and action planning – this theme emerged again and again whatever topic was under consideration in the roundtables which discussed the analysis and proposals in the JRF Viewpoint Breaking the links between poverty and ethnicity in Wales.

For more about the issues debated in the roundtables see this and our other  podcasts and blogs.

JRF Viewpoint: Breaking the links between poverty and ethnicity in Wales Viewpoint authors: Anna Nicholl, Chris Johnes and Duncan Holtom

Print copies are also available, in English and Welsh, from [email protected]

Blog author: Lila Haines, Egino

Note: This blog represents the author’s views and interpretation, and not the position of the Joseph Rowntree Foundation or any other organisation or individual cited.

26 Apr

Ethnicity and educational barriers in Wales

Poor education and skills are key predictors of poverty. But people from ethnic minority groups are often well qualified, or over-qualified for their jobs – so why are poverty levels linked to ethnicity still high in Wales?

In a roundtable held in Butetown, Cardiff’s most diverse community, national and community organisations and academic experts debated problems within education that reinforce the links between ethnicity and poverty in Wales. The event was part of a series organised by Egino and supported by the Joseph Rowntree Foundation to discuss  the JRF Viewpoint Breaking the links between poverty and ethnicity in Wales.

Educational achievement: a mixed picture

Presenting the Viewpoint’s analysis and proposals Dr Duncan Holtom, one of the authors, noted that educational attainment in school varies across ethnic groups, with some, such as Gypsy and Traveller children, notably underachieving. But there has been progress: the educational attainment of children from the Pakistani and Bangladeshi groups, for example, has now risen to the average in Wales. And educational attainment is not the main cause of higher levels of poverty among ethnic minority groups.

Over-qualified and under-paid

Often, ethnic minority groups and immigrants cannot convert their educational attainment into higher wages as well as the White majority can; and they’re more likely to be over-qualified for their jobs.

One reason is the quality of careers advice, criticised across ethnicities. Other problems relate to parental engagement and the relationship between schools and parents.

There’s a strong association between being entitled to free school meals and educational achievement,but the data isn’t available in a way that allows a clear understanding and targeting for impact.

“A national disgrace!”

Participants echoed these and other Viewpoint findings, sometimes expressing them more graphically!

  • 70% of those in poverty leave school without 5 good GCSEs – “a national disgrace”, said one contributor.
  • Another claimed there is no evidence ethnicity is being taken seriously by the schools inspection system.
  • One described the careers service as “a basket case”.
  • And there was the heartfelt if rhetorical question: “if you can’t see your culture reflected in the system why would you buy into it?”

Role models

A lack of role models was identified as a serious deficit in Welsh schools, even in those with a high proportion of pupils from ethnic minorities.

Participants called for schools to recognise the need for more ethnic minority teachers, and for the Welsh Government to develop an action plan to encourage people from ethnic minorities to become teachers, with appointment targets for schools.

Follow the evidence

Professor David Egan, Director of the Wales Centre for Equity in Education, highlighted three areas where there’s ample evidence that intervention works:

(1) Early years investment;

(2) Early and purposeful intervention as soon as pupils start to fall behind;

(3) Access to the labour market.

Commenting on the roundtable debate Prof Egan said:

“I think what we’ve recognized is two things in particular. One, that there is progress in this area in Wales (but) in terms of the achievement of certain ethnic minority groups, not all. But I think we’ve also realised that there’s much more that we need to know about this area, both in research terms and policy terms.

It’s quite interesting that we feel – we’ve been quite honest with one another – that there’s too much, let’s call it tokenism, about this perhaps in Wales at the moment; that we’re signed up to the issues around equality (…) and we still don’t know enough about this area of education.”

Family + community + schools = success?

Participants agreed about the importance of family engagement in education and, as Prof Egan stressed: “… schools certainly need to pay more attention to these issues, all schools, not just schools in our most ethnic minority intense of areas… And we need almost certainly to get a better representation within our teaching force of ethnic minority achievement groups…”

Welsh Government policies

Prof Egan noted the need for a holistic approach by the Welsh Government across its education policies, ensuring that ethnicity is reflected in all the major education policies that are currently being developed, and in others that might come in future, and “bringing this together within a holistic strategy and action plan”.

The latter point echoed a feeling which arose again and again in the series of roundtables discussing the JRF Viewpoint Breaking the links between poverty and ethnicity in Wales: the importance of bringing together Welsh Government policies within a holistic strategy, with an action plan to break the links between poverty and ethnicity in Wales.

You can hear more in this podcast:


JRF Viewpoint: Breaking the links between poverty and ethnicity in Wales
Viewpoint authors: Anna Nicholl, Chris Johnes and Duncan Holtom

Print copies are also available, in English and Welsh, from [email protected]

Blog author: Lila Haines

Note: This represents the author’s views and interpretations and does not necessarily reflect the position of the Joseph Rowntree Foundation or any other organisation or individual cited.

 

25 Apr

Ending poverty linked to ethnicity in Wales

A recent series of roundtables  involving Welsh NGOs, academics and local and national government officials debated a vital issue that has fallen off the radar: the links between poverty and ethnicity in Wales.

The Joseph Rowntree Foundation (JRF) Viewpoint Breaking the links between poverty and ethnicity in Wales identifies the causes of inequalities linked to ethnicity in Wales and proposes a set of actions to break these links.

With JRF support, and working with the People and Work Unit, Egino organised a series of roundtables to consider the findings and proposals. The wide range of participants welcomed the opportunity to debate the evidence and make proposals for future action. This blog and the accompanying podcast give a taste of that debate.

Aspiration for change

Ali Abdi, Community Partnerships manager at the Grangetown Community Gateway, Cardiff, was struck by the flow of ideas and aspiration for change: “There were lots of people here wanting to give their personal views and experiences from their workplace about inequalities in Wales about different ethnic groups. I think particularly what struck me was the aspiration, to want to change.”

Dr Rachel Bowen, Policy Manager for the Federation of Small Businesses in Wales, thought it was really positive to see that change is possible as demonstrated in the attainment levels of people from different ethnic backgrounds.” But she cautioned against simplistic solutions, about thinking that there will be an automatic reduction in poverty if everybody gets better skills, and flagged up issues in the small business sector.

Mind the gender gap

In Wales, the employment rate for women from ethnic minorities is projected to remain below 50% up to 2020. Christine O’Byrne, Policy and Research Lead for Chwarae Teg, the Welsh charity which has been promoting women’s progress in the workplace since 1992, expressed particular concern about this gender gap: “Gender is central to tackling poverty. Women are more likely to be in poverty than men and we know that women face multiple disadvantage, so as a woman you would be disadvantaged in the economy, and as a woman from an ethnic minority group you’d be even more so.”

From data to intervention

Dr Richard Gale, a lecturer in human geography at Cardiff University, was struck by how the Viewpoint explored the existing evidence base and used it to look at the connections between problems: “When we move into thinking about where and when to intervene, the question emerges: where do you intervene in a particular problem to help create more positive pathways and transition? So I think it was useful to start with the data in the report and then think through the next steps from that.”

For more about the issues debated in the roundtables you can listen to the accompanying podcast, download the Viewpoint, or email Egino.

 

JRF Viewpoint: Breaking the links between poverty and ethnicity in Wales
Viewpoint authors: Anna Nicholl, Chris Johnes and Duncan Holtom

Print copies are also available, in English and Welsh, from [email protected]

Blog author: Lila Haines

Note: These are the author’s views and interpretation, and not the position of the Joseph Rowntree Foundation or any other organisation or individual cited.

18 Feb

Breaking the links between poverty and ethnicity – Wales must act

A new JRF Viewpoint, Breaking the links between poverty and ethnicity in Wales, reveals that stark inequalities linked to ethnicity are set to continue to 2022 and beyond if action isn’t taken now. But, it argues, this is far from inevitable.

Wales can break the link between poverty and ethnicity, is the key message, but only if there is strong leadership and action starts now.

The Viewpoint identifies the causes of inequalities linked to ethnicity in Wales and proposes a set of actions to break these links. Public policy, local services, employer behaviour and support for new migrants can all make a difference.

Written by Egino and The People and Work Unit, and published by the Joseph Rowntree Foundation (JRF), the Viewpoint draws on a wealth of research on poverty and ethnicity that has been conducted by JRF’s Poverty and Ethnicity programme.

The problems are clear but vary across Wales

Current and projected links between poverty and ethnicity in Wales are clear, but vary considerably across places and over time – and gender: being female is a major risk factor:

  • In Wales, the employment rate for women from ethnic minorities is projected to remain below 50% throughout 2012 – 2020.

The proportion of ethnic minority people in poverty is higher than the majority White population, with some groups at particular risk.

  • The incidence of poverty in the Asian group is estimated to be twice that of the White majority.
  • Bangladeshis and Pakistanis tend to be the most disadvantaged across a variety of indicators.
  • Bangladeshi men are over 7 times more likely to be in low-paid jobs than otherwise comparable White men.
  • The unemployment rate in the Caribbean group in Wales is almost twice that of the White majority.

Racism? Or the wrong kind of jobs?

Racism and discrimination continue to be negative factors and efforts to address them remain key. But there are also other factors which may have been less well understood that can help to focus effort effectively.

Differences in earnings, for example, are the result of the concentration of certain ethnic groups in low-paid sectors and occupations. When doing the same work, employees tend to be paid roughly the same, regardless of ethnicity. Addressing the concentration of certain ethnic groups in particular low-paid occupations should be a priority for public policy.

Social networks: help or hindrance?

Friendships, the way we care for loved ones and informal social networks can make a difference to whether a person is more likely to live in poverty or earn a good living.

This is in part about the way information and advice circulates informally. Understanding this can provide important insights into how public services can better engage with our diverse population.

The keys to action

The Viewpoint argues that action is needed across the public sector, and also by employers, businesses, third-sector groups, trade unions and citizens themselves. They recommend five key approaches that should have an impact, whilst also being cost effective:

  • engage
  • integrate
  • intervene early and prevent
  • shape workplace and labour market activity
  • demand and use evidence.

Identifying the next steps

With support from JRF, Egino and the People and Work Unit are convening a series of roundtable events to consider the Viewpoint’s proposals, as follows:

1. National policy implications

Tuesday 15 March 2016, 11:00-13:00 [Tea/coffee from 10:45]

Venue: Culture and Media Centre, Loudoun Square, Cardiff CF10 5HW

2. Work, ethnicity and poverty in Wales

Monday 4 April 2016 – 14:00-16:00 [Tea/coffee from 13:45]

Venue: EYST, Units B & C, 11 St Helen Road, Swansea SA1 4AB

3. Education, ethnicity and poverty in Wales

Wed 6 April 2016, 14:00-16:00 [tea/coffee from 13:45]

Venue: Culture and Media Centre, Loudoun Square, Cardiff CF10 5HW

Please register by emailing [email protected]
11 Jan

Welsh EU membership – benefits & looming challenges

Egino research shows that Wales is a winner from EU membership.

The experience has not been without its challenges, but these have been far outweighed by the benefits.

The big numbers are impressive: £9 billion from EU Structural Funds and the Common Agricultural Policy between 2000 and 2013 alone – and even more from funds supporting learning, technology, cross-territorial cooperation, infrastructural upgrades and more.
In cash terms every woman, man and child has gained more than s/he has contributed, as shown by Egino research for Jill Evans MEP – a net gain of €1,768 each over the period we examined.

Read More